One of the features of
the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi is that its perpetrators carried it out
everywhere; in churches or clinics. Even more severe is the fact that some of
those who were responsible for protecting human lives, including doctors who
had sworn in for their profession, have been at the forefront of committing
Genocide, especially in hospitals, health centers and clinics.
Many of the doctors and nurses killed Tutsi who had taken refuge in hospitals, others have participated in the attacks and gave instructions to kill. The killings took place all over the country. Some of them have been arrested, tried, convicted, and imprisoned in Rwandan prisons. Others are still free where they fled in foreign countries, including those who are already employed by foreign hospitals and clinics, regardless of the fact that they betrayed their professional standards.
Among these doctors, there are some who, when they arrived overseas started to propagate the Genocide ideology, demeaning and denial of the Genocide against the Tutsi, defamation of the Rwandan leadership and establishing the so- called political groups around the world based on genocide ideology including FDLR, FDU-inkingi, RUD URUNANA and others.
For some of them, the Prosecutor General's Office issued arrest warrants and are now wanted by Interpol. doctors and nurses who were involved in the genocide against the Tutsi fled to various countries, including France, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Italy, Norway, the United States of America, Canada, south Africa, Zambia, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Swaziland, Burundi and elsewhere.
Nationwide, the number of doctors and nurses known to have committed the Genocide is fifty-nine (59), including twenty-five (25) who committed the Genocide in the City of Butare.
The total number of identified nurses who committed genocide was seventy-four (74), including thirty-one (31) who committed genocide in Butare City.
Butare University Hospital (CHUB) is one with the highest number of doctors who committed the genocide.
This article highlights the significant role of these people in the massacre carried out in Butare City. It also shows that twenty-five (25) doctors, three (03) medical students at the University of Rwanda and thirty-one nurses (31) turned out to be murderers.
Among the doctors were high-level medical experts that Rwanda had.
After 26 years, the National Commission for the fight against Genocide calls for those doctors and nurses who committed genocide and fled abroad to be suspended from medical care and be taken to justice.
This is the list of crimes committed by doctors and nurses, where they had committed them and the related Rwandan Courts decisions.
I. THE ROLE OF DOCTORS DURING GENOCIDE IN BUTARE CITY
1. Dr Nshimyumuremyi Jean-Berchmas
He was born in Butaro Commune in Ruhengeri. In 1994, he was the Vice Chancellor of the University of Rwanda (UNR). He is one of the leaders in the planning of the Genocide carried out in the University and in the City of Butare. He formed groups of murderers who organized and encouraged the massacre of Tutsi in Butare City, including the one called "Cercle des intellectuels Rwandais à Butare" slightly translated as “Circle of Rwandan intellectuals in Butare” which published a number of articles spreading hatred and murder.
On November 24, 2009, the Gacaca Court of Butare Town Sector sentenced him to life imprisonment after convicting him of genocide crime, which included attending meetings preparing for the Genocide at the University and the University General Hospital (CHUB), inciting staff to kill Tutsi, causing the killing of Tutsi teachers and students, the establishing and leading Interahamwe group at the University of Butare.
The court also ruled that Dr Nshimyumuremyi Jean Berchmas had formed a group called: “Comité de financement de l’auto-défense civile” translated as: “Committee on the Financing of Civil self defense" to raise funds for the Interahamwe and the killings. He collaborated with Rutayisire Faustin, the sous prefect of Butare Prefecture, Sebalinda Jean Baptiste who was the Director of Administration and Finance (DAF) at a matchbox factory in Butare and businessman called Gakwaya Venant. The money was transferred on account N° 84343 opened in Bank of Kigali, Butare branch.
Dr Nshimyumuremyi was also convicted of torturing Tutsi comprising of Professor Jean Baptiste Habyarimana, who was killed in the Genocide and was the prefect of Butare as well as his collaboration with CHUB doctors in the killings.
2. Dr Nshimyumukiza Jotham
During the Genocide, he was the director of CHUB Hospital until he fled in July 1994. He killed patients, doctors and nurses he supervised including Karekezi Jean-Claude who was a nurse. He told ESO soldiers that Karekezi was a Tutsi and he was choked in front of patients. As the director general of the hospital, Dr Nshimyumukiza Jotham was at the forefront of all the killings in CHUB.
3. Dr Munyemana Sosthène
He was from the former Musambira commune (Gitarama) where he was born in 1955 and belonged to the MDR Party. He worked at the University Hospital in Butare (CHUB) and also was teaching at the University of Rwanda, Faculty of Medicine. Gacaca courts tried him in absentia for genocide crime he committed at CHUB and in Tumba where he lived in Ngoma commune, Butare. He was sentenced by Gacaca to 30 years in prison on 05/08/2007 and on 22/01/2010 the Ngoma Gacaca Court on appeal upheld his sentence in absentia after proving his role in the planning and execution of the Genocide in the City of Butare, especially in CHUB where he killed women and children as well as where he lived in Tumba.
Among the atrocities he committed in Tumba include the incarceration of Tutsi in the Tumba sector meeting room and selection of those to be killed including Philippe Musake and Laurence Kanayire. He was also charged with the distribution of guns that he was given by Kambanda Jean, the former prime minister and the killings at Mukoni roadblock.
Dr Munyemana Sosthène fled to France in 1994 and continued his medical career at Villeneuve-sur-Lot Hospital until 2009 when he was suspended. In December 2018 a French prosecutor decided to bring him to justice but the first case against Dr MUNYEMANA's crimes in the genocide against the Tutsi was filed in 1995, in France in the Bordeaux Court (TGI Bordeaux).
4. Dr Rwamucyo Eugène
He was born in the former Gatonde commune in Ruhengeri and was the director of the "Center Universitaire de Santé Publique de Butare / CUSP", the University of Rwanda center. Dr Rwamucyo Eugène was also at the forefront of the organizers of the Genocide in Butare City. Among the crimes he committed, he ordered residents to dig up the bodies and dump them in pits that had been already excavated before.
On 02/09/2009, the Ngoma Gacaca Court sentenced him to life imprisonment after convicting him of forming gangs of killers that incited genocide execution, supplying of killing equipment, kidnapping Tutsi women and girls, counting and identifying the dead. When he arrived in France, Dr Rwamucyo was offered a job at Lille University Hospital and later worked at Maubeuge Hospital, and was suspended in October 2009, after the hospital learned that he was wanted for his role in the Genocide against the Tutsi.
On 26/05/2010, Dr Rwamucyo was arrested by Interpol on the basis of arrest warrants issued by the Rwandan Prosecutor General's Office, arrested at the Sannois Cemetery where he had gone to bury the murderer Jean Bosco Barayagwiza who had decreased in the United Nations prison in Benin where he was serving a 35-year prison sentence given by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR / ICTR).
Dr Rwamucyo was jailed for four (4) months and released on 15/09/2010, the Court of Appeal of Versailles (France) refused to extradite him to Rwanda, but ruled that he should be prosecuted in France. For more than nine years, no justice has been served.
5. Dr Bararengana Séraphin
He was born from Gasiza where his father NTIBAZIRIKANA Jean Baptiste is said to have been inhabited by priests around 1913. It is in the former Karago Commune, now in Gasiza Village, Nyundo Cell, Rambura Sector in Nyabihu District. He has long been the head of the Department of Medicine at the University of Rwanda (UNR) but like many others he was a doctor at CHUB.
He is the young brother of Juvenal Habyarimana who was the President of the Republic of Rwanda and a member of the AKAZU, a group of high level military, public servants and private people that had a final say on government, in governance, justice, economics and the military of the country.
In the run-up to the genocide, Dr Bararengana urged CHUB staff to take part in the killings and provided weapons of mass destruction. The Gacaca Court of Mamba Cell, Ngoma Sector sentenced him to thirty (30) years imprisonment in absentia on 05/09/2007. Others convicted for complicity in the same case are Dr Bigirimana Ignace, Dr Mugabo Pierre and Dr Karemera Alphonse. Dr Bararengana lives in Belgium.
6. Dr Habarugira Pascal
He was born in Gafunzo Commune (Cyangugu) in Nyamasheke District, Nyabitekeri Sector in 1957. He also worked at CHUB as a Gynaecologist. After the genocide was stopped, he first worked for a short time at Centre Hospitaliere de Kigali (CHK), then resumed his work at CHUB until his arrest in March 2005.
On 05/09/2007, the appeal of the Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court sentenced him to thirty years (30) of imprisonment after convicting him with the crimes of leading the massacre at the Mukoni roadblock. At this roadblock a large number of people were killed and dumped in a pit next to it called “Iki bisi” or “big bus”. He was also convicted of allegedly handing over a Tutsi woman called Mukangango Venantie to death and killing a baby of a Hutu woman who was impregnated by a Tutsi.
On 06/02/2008, the Gacaca Court sentenced him to nineteen (19) years in prison after considering his request for release on bail. He is being held in Nyarugenge Prison.
7. Dr Nsengiyumva Jean Népomuscène
He was born in the former Ruhondo commune of Ruhengeri in 1947. After the genocide when he came from exile, he worked at Ruhengeri Hospital until his arrest in 2005. He was also convicted of genocide by the Gacaca court of Butare City on 05/09/2007 for attending genocide preparation meetings to kill Tutsi at CHUB, inciting CHUB doctors, nurses and staff to commit Genocide and preventing them from receiving and treating Tutsi patients, some of whom resulted in their death.
He was sentenced to thirty (30) years in prison and he is held in Huye prison. His wife, Dr NYIRARUHANGO Berthe, was sentenced by the Gacaca Courts to 30 years in prison on 26/09/2007 in absentia.
8. Dr Nyiraruhango Berthe
He is a specialist in the treatment of throat, nose and ear diseases (ORL) who was married to Dr NSENGIYUMVA Jean Népomuscène. They both worked at the University of Rwanda Hospital. Dr Nyiraruhango Berthe has been cruel to Tutsi since 1990 when the so-called Inkotanyi accomplices were being imprisoned, she was one of those who prepared Tutsi list to be imprisoned.
During the genocide, Dr Nyiraruhango persecuted Tutsi patients, she requested their IDs and took them to the Interahamwe and soldiers who came and took the patients away and killed them; she also refused to receive and treat Tutsi patients, saying she would not treat cockroaches.
Among those she killed approved by Gacaca, included a nurse called Hawa, and she was also accused of piercing a child’s ear with a nail saying that she did not treat Inyenzi (coackroaches).
After the genocide, she fled to Kenya. On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court sentenced her to thirty (30) years in prison in absentia. It is said that she died in exile. Her husband, Dr Nsengiyumva Jean Nepomuscene, is being held in Huye Prison and has been sentenced to thirty (30) years in prison for genocide crimes in Butare.
9. Dr Mugabo Pierre
He is the son-in-law of Mbonyumutwa Dominique. In 1994 he worked at the "Pharmaceutical Laboratory" in Butare. He committed genocide at the University Hospital and also appeared in the massacre at the roadblock in front of Hotel Faucon.
He was sentenced to 30 years in prison by the Gacaca Court of Ngoma Sector, Huye District on 05/09/2007 for the genocide crimes against doctors and teachers who lived in Buye. He also participated in an attack that took 25 children from sisters’ home Maison Generalice and the handing over of the patients to be killed.
He committed genocide in collaboration with his wife Feresita Musanganire who worked at CUSP Butare. He lives in South Africa where he works at the University of the Western Cape, in the Department of Pharmacy. He and his wife, Musanganire Feresita, work at the university and were both convicted by Gacaca Courts for genocide in Butare.
10. Dr Kageruka Martin
He was a gynaecologist at CHUB and Nyumbakumi where he lived. He was born in Kibuye, Mabanza commune, Mushubati sector in 1946. His case was handled by ordinary courts. Among the charges against him, included participation in meetings that organized and encouraged the implementation of Genocide in CHUB, mobilization of CHUB staff to commit Genocide including encouraging doctors and nurses to refuse to treat Tutsi patients. Among those he was convicted of, along with Lieutenant Pierre Bizimana on the instructions of Captain Ildephonse Nizeyimana, was the assassination of Queen Rosalie Gicanda. Both the Court of First Instance of Butare and the Kigali Court of Appeal, he was sentenced to life imprisonment and he is being held in Nyarugenge Prison.
11. Dr Ndindabahizi Jean Chrysostome
He worked in CUSP, from Nyakizu, Butare. He was a member of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and later joined the PSD power. He was indicted in the same case with Dr. Runyinya Barabwiriza who was a university lecturer and a political adviser to President Habyarimana on 05/09/2007.
On 11/05/2008, the Tumba B Assembly sentenced him in absentia to life imprisonment. His wife, Dr Nduwamariya Jeanne, is said to have been involved in the planning and implementation of the genocide, especially in the killings at the Tumba roadblocks. They both live in Gabon.
12. Dr Habiyaremye Innocent
He is from the former Nkumba commune in Ruhengeri where he was born in 1951. He is a microbiologist in Belgium and worked in the CHUB laboratory. He fled to Gikongoro and worked in the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) until his arrest and detention in 1995. He was convicted of leading genocide planning meetings, setting up roadblocks and leading them. He was sentenced to life in prison and he is detained in Huye prison.
13. Dr Mutwewingabo Bernard
He was an expert in Anatomy - pathology, working in the CHUB laboratory. He was convicted of planning genocide, killing and leading attacks at the University of Rwanda and the city of Butare. On 27/05/2009, the Ngoma Gacaca Court of Appeal sentenced him to life imprisonment with special provisions and he died in Huye prison. His wife, Marie Thérèse Kampire, who was a university lecturer and a daughter of Dr Venant Ntabomvura, was sentenced to nineteen (19) years in prison for committing genocide crimes in Butare City.
14. Dr Bigirimana Ignace alias Sederi (CDR)
He is from Gaseke Commune (Gisenyi) and worked at CHUB. He was sentenced by the Gacaca to 30 years in prison on September 5, 2007 on charges of participating in a gang of killers and in massacre of Tutsi in Butare. He fled to Kenya before the trial ended but is now living in Eswatini (formerly Swaziland) and works at Mbabane Governmental Hospital.
15. Dr Karemera Alphonse
He was born in Nyabikenke Commune (Gitarama) in 1951. He was the head of Medical Department at the University in Butare. Dr Karemera was a serial killer who led the massacre at the University Hospital in Butare and at the University where students, staff and Tutsi teachers were killed. He attended and chaired the genocide planning and mobilization meetings at CHUB to the point where he encouraged doctors and nurses to refuse to treat Tutsi patients. He was sentenced by Gacaca in absentia for thirty (30) years in prison on 05/09/2007.
16. Dr Hakizimana Deogratias
He was indicted in the same case with Dr Runyinya Barabwiriza, a former university lecturer and political adviser to President Habyarimana, on 05/09/2007. Dr Hakizimana Deo was said to have attended meetings to prepare the killing of Tutsi, to incite genocide implementation and to engage in attacks.
17. Dr Nduwamariya Jeanne
She was a doctor at Kabutare Groupe Scolaire Officiel de Butare Hospital. She is from Ndora Commune (Butare). She was involved in the preparation and implementation of the Genocide, especially in the killings of Tutsi at the Tumba roadblocks. She is best known for her attacks towards the Berekimasi family, by hunting down his daughter Chantal until she paid money to hunt and kill her. But she also said she would kill Chantal herself. There were several genocide planning meetings held at her home with her husband. She is the wife of Dr Jean Chrysostome Ndindabahizi. She was tried by Gacaca Courts in absentia and sentenced for life imprisonment with special provisions by Tumba B Assembly on 28/10/2009.
18. Dr Mwigimba Cyrille
He was a doctor at CHUB and was convicted of genocide crime on 20/11/2009 by the Gacaca Court of Butare-Ville Sector, which includes: refusal to treat and discriminate against Tutsi patients. After discriminating them, he handed them over to the soldiers to be killed in collaboration with Dr Rugina Nizeyimana Emmanuel and Dr Habimana Lin. He also attended genocide planning meetings at the University and at CHUB, illegal possession of firearms at his residence in Taba and participating in massacres of Tutsi at the Sisters’ home - Maison Generalice, where twenty-five (25) children were taken from to be killed. The court sentenced him to special life imprisonment.
19. Dr Habimana Lin
20. He is a Burundian doctor who worked at a university hospital. On November 20, 2009, he was convicted by the Gacaca Court of Butare-Ville Sector in the same case as Dr Rugina and Dr Mwigimba on charges of discriminating Tutsi patients and handing them over to the (Ecole des Sous-Officiers. - ESO) to be executed, refusal to treat Tutsi patients and to discriminate against them by handing them over to soldiers and the Interahamwe to be executed, to attend massacres preparation meetings at CHUB and in the University with the intent to kill Tutsi staff and students. He was sentenced to life imprisonment in absentia.
20. Dr Nyagasaza Aloys
He was sentenced on 16/11/2009 by Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court to life imprisonment after being convicted of murder in Butare City, especially at Mukoni and Kabutare. He was also convicted of killing Tutsi at the roadblock, transporting bodies in his car and killing Nkundayezu Bernardin and Mushumba himself. Dr Nyagasaza was also identified as Dr Habarugira Pascal's accomplice in the case handled by Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court on 06/02/2008, and was convicted of crimes including the huge killing at the Mukoni roadblock.
21. Dr Sijyeniyo Charles
He was a dentist who had studied in Russia from Cyarwa in the former Butare prefecture. He was convicted of genocide by the Gacaca Assembly in Butare City on 05/09/2007, along with Dr Hakizimana Deo. His convictions were that he participated to meetings preparing to kill Tutsi, incite people to carry out genocide and participation in attacks.
22. Dr Twagirayezu Emmanuel
He was born in 1950 in Ndora commune in the former Butare prefecture, now in Gisagara District. On 26/03/2010, the Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court convicted him of genocide crimes including: attending genocide planning meetings, handing over Tutsi to soldiers to be killed at hospital, inciting execution of genocide, participating in attacks and killing of Tutsi called Mujejende and Sebera as well as raping Tutsi women including students.
He was sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment.
23. Dr Ngirabatware Bruno
He was a doctor at the University Hospital in Butare. after the Genocide, he fled to Malawi and he is wanted by the Rwandan justice. He was sentenced to 30 years in prison and he is a brother to Mbonampeka Stanislas, former Minister of justice from PL who committed genocide in Ndera. Dr Ngirabatware Bruno was sentenced to 30 years in prison and escaped justice pending trial.
24. Dr Gatera Godefroid
He worked in the surgical service. The Butare Gacaca Court convicted him of the crimes of planning and committing Genocide in CHUB. He died in Huye prison where he was serving his sentence.
25. Dr Murengezi Ildephonse
He was the director of the National Laboratory of Pharmaceuticals (LABOPHAR) in Butare. He is from the former Ruhashya Commune in Butare, currently in Huye District.
He also committed genocide in Butare. On March 26, 2009, the Gacaca Court of Ngoma Sector, Huye District, sentenced him to nineteen (19) years in prison after he was convicted of going to a roadblock at which many Tutsi were killed and in attacks on Tutsi in various places in Butare City. He was found guilty of participating in the meetings which planned the genocide and which were held at Gasengayire's house. He incited his employees to seek and kill the Tutsi. He lives in France or in Switzerland
26. Dr Rutagengwa Emmanuel
He was born in Cyarwa, Ngoma Commune, Butare in 1954 currently in Huye District. In 1994, he worked for the National Institute of Medicine, headquartered in Butare. On 29/10/2008, the Cyarwa Cyimana A Gacaca Court sentenced him to life imprisonment with special provisions, after he was convicted of genocide crimes in Butare. Among the crimes for which he was found guilty, there were the organization of meetings which planned the genocide, the illegal carrying of weapons, the use of LABOPHAR vehicles in the transport of soldiers who killed Tutsi, including the man named Nzovu.
He participated in attacks against Tutsi with Niyibizi Benoit, Gashirabake Louis, Mutwewingabo and Sendege. He was in the attack on the assassination of Ntakirutimana Mariya’s husband. He was convicted of rape of Tutsi women and girls. He lives in Malawi.
27. Teganya Leonard
In 1994, he was a student in his final year of university, Department of Medicine. He would make a list of Tutsi patients who entered the hospital and bring in the Interahamwe and the soldiers to take the patients and kill them. He killed and raped women. In 1994, Teganya fled to Canada seeking asylum and later fled to the United States, where he was arrested and sentenced to 97 months in prison for lying to immigration officials about his role in the Genocide.
He studied at the University, Department of Medicine and was a soldier who stayed at the home of Dr Ndindabahizi Jean Chrysostome. In the case of Dr Habarugira Pascal, ruled by the Gacaca Court of Ngoma Sector on 06/02/2008, Bikomagu was identified as a person who was involved in the hunt for Tutsi who were not yet killed at the National University of Rwanda (UNR), in the university forest (Arboretum) and in the rooms where they had hidden.
29. Mupenzi Jean de la Paix
He was a university student, and the Gacaca Court of Butare ville A sentenced him to thirty (30) years of imprisonment on 09/10/2009. He escaped justice after being sentenced. Bikomagu, Mupenzi and Teganya in Butare were considered as doctors because they were medical students and were seen in a training at the hospital.
II. THE ROLE OF NURSES DURING GENOCIDE IN BUTARE CITY
1. Remera Simeon
He was a medical assistant working for the CARAES Center for mentally Disabled patients, Butare Branch. He was a leader of CDR in Butare Prefecture. He was one of the leaders of the Genocide in various places in Butare Town and especially in Runyinya Commune where he was born. On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court sentenced him to 30 years in prison in absentia. His wife, Gemma, was a nurse and was also sentenced by Tumba B Gacaca Court on 27/07/2009 to life imprisonment after convicting her of genocide in Tumba.
2. Musanganire Felesita
She was working on an HIV/AIDS project at the University of Public Health center (CUSP). She is from Gitarama and is the daughter of Dominique Mbonyumutwa who was the first President of Rwanda. On 20/12/2006, the Gacaca Court of Ngoma Sector sentenced her to twenty-five (25) years in prison in absentia. Among her convictions included the murder of Prof. Pierre - Claver Karenzi killed at the roadblock in front of Hotel Faucon, collaborating with Dr Eugene Rwamucyo in the death of Cécile Nyirasikubwabo, a former CUSP employee. At the roadblock, Felicité Musanganire was in charge of controlling people’s IDs and separating Hutu from the Tutsi, handing over the Tutsi to be killed by the Interahamwe and the military.
She fled to South Africa where she works at the Western Cape University AIDS Center and where she continued her studies after fleeing. Her husband Dr Pierre Mugabo, who conspired to commit genocide in Butare, was sentenced to thirty (30) years on 05/09/2007.
3. A nun called Mukarubibi Tewopista
She was a nurse in charge of the CHUB kitchen, caring for feeding the sick mainly the poor who did not have families to bring them food. She has been convicted of various offenses due to her collaboration with doctors, nurses and other CHUB staff in the killings at the University Hospital. The Butare - ville Gacaca Court sentenced her to thirty (30) years on 11/08/2006. She is detained in Nyamagabe Prison.
4. Mukamuzima Philomene alias Kinanda
She was born in Gikongoro in 1954, the former commune of Nshili. She worked at ONAPO / Butare since 1993 in charge of family planning services from CUSP where she was a nurse. she was part of a group of killers established by Pauline Nyiramasuhuko and her son Arsene Shalom Ntahobari, and was a close friend of Dr Seraphin Bararengana, President Habyarimana's young brother. He was also a member of the CUSP Genocide preparatory group.
she was also involved in the killings along with Dr Rwamucyo Eugene and MP Febronie Nsaguye of the MRND. On March 26, 2008, she was convicted by the Gacaca Court of Ngoma Sector for crimes of attending genocide planning meetings at CUSP, supporting the implementation of genocide, controlling and betraying her fellow Tutsi colleagues who were killed. She was sentenced to nineteen (19) years in prison.
5. Mukarurangwa Marie Rose alias Kaporali
She is from Mpare in the former Huye Commune where she was born in 1959, currently in Huye District. She is the daughter of the Banyangiriki Zacharia who has been the MP representing MRND for a long time. They nicknamed her Corporal because of her cruelty. On 04/06/2008, she was convicted by the Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court of attending genocide planning meetings at CUSP, supporting the conduct of genocide, controlling and betraying her fellow Tutsi employees who were killed, including seven (7) who were revealed. She was sentenced to nineteen years in prison (19).
6. Mukabandora Scolastique
She was a nurse at CHUB in Butare. She was born in Ruli in the former Nyamabuye commune (Gitarama) in 1952. On 05/09/2007, the Gacaca Court of Butare Sector convicted her of confiscating patients’ ID cards, taking out serum from Tutsi patient, killing a baby on her own by hitting him on the floor with head down, handing over patients to be killed and attending meetings to prepare for the killings at the hospital. She was sentenced to thirty (30) years of imprisonment and later to nineteen (19) years of imprisonment on appeal on 15/03/2008 and he completed his sentence.
7. Mukamunana Juliette
She was born in 1952 in Gahini, Kayonza District. She worked in the Red Cross project at CHUB. The Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court convicted her of conspiracy to assassinate Tutsi, celebrating the massacre of Tutsi, requesting Identity Cards to discriminate people and expose Tutsi to be killed. On 16/03/2007, the Ngoma Sector Council (Huye) decided to change the outcome of the first trial where she was sentenced to thirty (30) years. The Court found that the testimony was inconsistent with the defendant's convictions and sentenced her to nineteen (19) years of imprisonment he completed his sentence.
8. Uwimana Tereza
She is from Gisenyi and was a nurse working for CUSP. On 04/06/2008, the Gacaca Court of Butare Ville Sector convicted her of attending genocide planning meetings at CUSP, conspiracy to kill Tutsi workers and inciting people to implement genocide. She was sentenced to nineteen (19) years in prison.
9. Nyiramisago Tereza
She is from Shyanda commune (Butare) and the sister of Theodore Sindikubwabo who was the president of the interim government. She was part of a group of genocide planners. On 04/06/2008, she was convicted by Ngoma sector Gacaca Court for attending genocide planning meetings at CUSP, supporting the conduct of genocide, controlling and betraying her fellow Tutsi workers who were killed, including seven who could be identified. She was sentenced to nineteen (19) years in prison.
10. Kantengwa Annonciata
She is from Ngoma Commune (Butare). She was part of a group of genocide planners. On 04/06/2008, she was convicted by the Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court of attending genocide planning meetings at CUSP, supporting the implementation of genocide, controlling and betraying her fellow Tutsi employees who were killed, including seven (7) who could be identified. She was sentenced to nineteen (19) years in prison.
11. Nyirahirwa Immaculée
On 30/01/2008, the Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court convicted her of genocide against Tutsi in CHUB, killing infants and throwing them in a pit. Although the offense was serious and she never pleaded guilty, the court sentenced her to fifteen (15) years in prison. It is a minor punishment compared to the seriousness of the crime of infanticide for a nurse. In another case of 26/09/2007, Nyirahirwa Immaculée was sentenced to eighteen (18) years in prison.
12. Musabyemariya Mariserina
She is from the former Ndora Commune (Butare). She is the daughter of Dr Ntabomvura Venant. On 16/07/2008, she was convicted by the Butare Ville Gacaca Court, Ngoma Sector for genocide crime composed of inciting people to commit genocide, to participate in women’s gang meetings to prepare genocide at CUSP. She pleaded guilty, but it was so late. She was sentenced to twelve (12) years in prison.
13. Murara Gabriel
On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court of Mamba Cell convicted her of genocide and sentenced her to thirty (30) years imprisonment in absentia for the crime of killing Tutsi in CHUB and Butare Town.
Gishamvu Gacaca Court sentenced her to life imprisonment on 19/12/2008.
14. Twahirwa Joseph
He was convicted of genocide offenses including: participating in attacks, holding genocide planning meetings, supplying axes to kill Tutsi, educating young workers to commit genocide and committing Genocide in CHUB. On 26/09/2007, the Ngoma Sector Gacaca Court convicted him of genocide and sentenced him to thirty (30) years imprisonment in absentia.
15. Uwimbabazi Emmanuel nicknamed Irivan
She was in charge of nurses and midwives at Kabutare Hospital. There were two other (2) colleagues Ildephonse who worked in the Laboratory and Alexis who worked in the paediatric service and were also involved in the killing of Tutsi in Butare Town and Kabutare Hospital.
16. Habimana Athanase
On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court convicted him of genocide and sentenced him to thirty (30) years in prison in absentia for the crime of killing Tutsi in CHUB and Butare Town.
17. Gatera Anastase
On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court of Mamba Cell convicted him of genocide and sentenced him to thirty (30) years imprisonment in absentia for the crime of killing Tutsi in CHUB and Butare Town.
18. Kubwimana Theodore
On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court convicted him of genocide and sentenced him to thirty (30) years in prison in absentia for the crime of killing Tutsi in CHUB and Butare Town.
19. Mukandekezi Foromina
The Ngoma Gacaca Court convicted her of requesting IDs from Tutsi and handed them over to the military to kill them, sending out Tutsi patients to be killed, complicity in the Tutsi massacre at the university hospital. She was sentenced to thirty (30) years imprisonment on 19/03/2008.
20. Rwaliye Constance
She is a Burundian woman who worked in CHUB's maternity service. She caused death to Tutsi patients and staff, including a former CHUB laboratory staff called Protais Nyangezi. After the genocide she returned to Burundi. On 05/09/2007, she was sentenced to nineteen (19) in absentia by Gacaca court.
21. Hakizimana Gerard alias Kazungu
On 29/09/2007, the Gacaca Court convicted him of attending CHUB killing meetings, collaborating with others to kill Tutsi at CHUB and the University of Rwanda. He was sentenced of eighteen (18) years imprisonment in his absence.
22. Ryumeko Charlotte
She was a Burundian nurse. On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court convicted her of genocide crime and sentenced her to thirty (30) years in prison.
23. Nikuze Venantie
On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court convicted her of genocide and sentenced her to eighteen (18) years of imprisonment.
24. Mukarugwiza Monique
Gacaca court convicted her of genocide crimes and sentenced her to thirty (30) years imprisonment on 26/09/2007.
25. Ukobizaba Janvier
Convicted of genocide on 26/09/2007, Gacaca Court sentenced him to eighteen (18) years imprisonment.
26. Nahimana Jean
Sentenced by the Gacaca Court to eighteen (18) years imprisonment on 26/09/200 convicted of genocide.
27. Ntahobavukira Réverien
On 26/09/2007, the Gacaca Court convicted him of genocide and sentenced him to eighteen (18) years imprisonment.
28. Kangabo Boniface
Sentenced to eighteen (18) years imprisonment on 26/09/2007, Gacaca Court convicted him of Genocide.
29. Rubangisa Alexis
Gacaca court convicted him of genocide and sentenced him to eighteen (18) years imprisonment on 26/09/2007.
30. Munyentwali Martin
He was sentenced by the Gacaca Court of Butare Ville to nineteen (19) years imprisonment on 21/11/2009.
31. Usabayezu Emmanuel
He was sentenced to nineteen (19) years by the Butare Ville Gacaca Court on 25/10/2006.
This list of doctors and nurses who participated in the Genocide in Butare City only shows that those who were in charge of treating people betrayed the standards of their profession. It also shows how the Genocide against the Tutsi became a supernatural crime where doctors gave up their profession of life protection and chose to kill.
Countries where some of these killers have fled to and still consider them as doctors should open their eyes because they are wrong. They should be suspended from the medical profession and removed from the list of physicians authorized to practice the medical profession. They should also be brought to justice as soon as possible so that those whose relatives were killed by them can get justice.
CNLG is pleased with the decisions taken against some doctors who have escaped justice in some countries, the decision to suspend them from medical profession and bring them before judges, so that they can be sentenced for genocide.
CNLG commends all those who continue to take part in this international justice campaign so that the perpetrators of the Genocide who fled the country can be held accountable for their actions.
There is more to come!
Done at Kigali on May 14, 2020
Dr BIZIMANA Jean Damascène
National Commission for the Fight Against Genocide (CNLG)
June 18, 1994: Lt Col Anatole Nsengiyumva was instructed to send troops to kill tutsi in Bisesero
Jun 18, 2020 Soma inkuru