CNLG yasohoye urutonde rw'abaganga n’abaforomo bakoze jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

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CNLG yasohoye urutonde rw'abaganga n’abaforomo bakoze jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi

Yanditswe May, 14 2020 09:53 AM
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Kimwe mu biranga ubukana bwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri 1994, nuko nta hantu na hamwe abicanyi batakoreye Jenoside, haba muri za Kiliziya, mu nsengero no mu mavuriro. Ikiremereye kurushaho nuko na bamwe mu bari bashinzwe kurengera ubuzima bw’abantu, harimo abaganga babirahiriye mu mwuga wabo, aribo babaye ku isonga yo gukora Jenoside, cyane cyane mu bitaro, mu bigo nderabuzima no mu mavuriro. 

Benshi mu baganga n’abaforomo bishe Abatutsi bari bahungiye mu bitaro, abandi bagiye mu bitero no gutanga amabwiriza yo kwica. Ubu bwicanyi bwakorewe hose mu Rwanda. Bamwe muri bo barafashwe, baraburana, bahamwa n’ibyaha, barafungwa muri gereza zo mu Rwanda. Abandi barakidegembya aho bahungiye mu mahanga, hakaba harimo n’abashatse akazi mu bitaro n’amavuriro yo mu mahanga, hirengagijwe amahame y’umwuga wabo batatiye.

Muri aba baganga, harimo abageze mu mahanga batangiza ibikorwa byo gukomeza kubiba ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside, gupfobya no guhakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, gusebya ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda no gushinga, hirya no hino ku isi, imitwe yitwa ko ari iya politiki ishingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside harino FDLR, FDU-Inkingi, RUD URUNANA n’indi.

Kuri bamwe muri bo Urwego Rukuru rw’Ubushinjacyaha rwatanze impapuro zibafata, ubu bakaba bari mu bashakishwa na Interpol. Abaganga n’abaforomo bakoze Jenoside bahungiye mu bihugu bitandukanye birimo: Ubufaransa, Ububiligi, Ubuholandi, Ubwongereza, Ubutaliyani, Norvège, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, Canada, Afurika y’Epfo, Zambia, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Swaziland, Uburundi n’ahandi.

Mu gihugu hose, umubare w’abaganga n’abaforomo bamenyekanye bakoze Jenoside ni mirongo itanu n’icyenda (59), harimo makumyabiri na batanu (25) bakoreye Jenoside mu Mujyi wa Butare. 

Naho umubare wose w’abaforomo bakoze Jenoside bashoboye kumenyekana ni mirongo irindwi na bane (74), harimo mirongo itatu n’umwe (31) bakoreye Jenoside mu Mujyi wa Butare.

Ibitaro bya kaminuza bya Butare (CHUB) ni byo byaciye agahigo mu kugira umubare munini w’abaganga bakoze Jenoside. 

Iyi nyandiko irerekana uruhare rukomeye rw’abo bantu mu bwicanyi bwabereye mu Mujyi wa Butare, ikagaragaza ko abaganga makumyabiri na batanu (25), abanyeshuri batatu (03) bigiraga ubuganga muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda n’abaforomo mirongo itatu n’umwe (31) babaye abicanyi. 

Mu baganga harimo n’inzobere zo mu rwego rwo hejuru u Rwanda rwari rufite. 

Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside irasaba ko abo baganga n’abaforomo bakoze jenoside bagahungira mu mahanga, imyaka ikaba ibaye makumyabiri n’itandatu (26), bahagarikwa mu mirimo yo kuvura, bakagezwa imbere y’ubutabera.

Ibyaha byakozwe n’abaganga n’abaforomo, aho babikoreye n’ibyemezo byafashwe n’Inkiko z’ U Rwanda.


  I.  URUHARE RW’ABAGANGA MURI JENOSIDE MU MUJYI WA BUTARE

1.  Dr Nshimyumuremyi Jean-Berchmans 

Avuka muri Komini Butaro mu Ruhengeri. Muri 1994, yari umuyobozi wungirije wa Kaminuza y’u Rwanda (UNR). Ni umwe mu bari ku isonga ry’icurwa ry’umugambi wa Jenoside muri Kaminuza no mu Mujyi wa Butare. Yashinze udutsiko tw’abicanyi twateguye tunashishikariza iyicwa ry’Abatutsi mu Mujyi wa Butare harimo akitwaga “Cercle des intellectuels Rwandais à Butare” kanditse inyandiko nyinshi zibiba urwango n’ubwicanyi. Ku wa 24/11/2009 Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge Butare Ville rwamukatiye igihano cy’igufungo cya burundu rumaze kumuhamya icyaha cya Jenoside kigizwe no kujya mu nama zitegura Jenoside muri Kaminuza no mu bitaro bikuru bya kaminuza (CHUB), gushishikariza abakozi kwica abatutsi, kwicisha abarimu n’abanyeshuri b’abatutsi, gushyiraho no kuyobora umutwe w’Interahamwe muri Kaminuza ya Butare. Urukiko rwemeje kandi ko Dr Nshimyumuremyi Jean Berchmans yari yarashinze agatsiko ko gukusanya inkunga (amafaranga) igenewe Interahamwe n’ubwicanyi, agatsiko kitwaga “Comité de financement de l’auto-défense civile” yari afatanyije na Rutayisire Faustin wari superefe kuri Perefegitura ya Butare, Sebalinda Jean Baptiste wari Umuyobozi w’Ubutegetsi n’Imari (DAF) mu ruganda rw’ibibiriti i Butare na Gakwaya Venant w’umucuruzi. Amafaranga yanyuzwaga kuri konti No 84343 bari barafunguje muri BK, ishami rya Butare. Dr Nshimyumuremyi kandi yahamwe n’ibyaha byo kuba yaratotezaga Abatutsi kuva kera barimo Porofeseri Jean Baptiste Habyarimana wishwe muri Jenoside ari Perefe wa Butare no kuba yarafatanyije ubwicanyi n’abaganga bo muri CHUB.

2.  Dr Nshimyumukiza Jotham

Muri Jenoside niwe wari umuyobozi w’ibitaro bya CHUB kugeza ahunze mu kwezi kwa Nyakanga 1994. Yicishije abarwayi ndetse n’abaganga n’abaforomo yayoboraga barimo Karekezi Jean-Claude wari umuforomo, kuko yabwiye abasirikari bo muri ESO ko ari umututsi bamunigira imbere y’abarwayi. Nk’umuyobozi mukuru w’ibitaro, Dr Nshimyumukiza Jotham niwe uri ku isonga ry’ibikorwa byose by’ubwicanyi bwabereye muri CHUB.

3.  Dr Munyemana Sosthène

Akomoka mu cyahoze ari Komini Musambira (Gitarama) aho yavukiye muri 1955 akaba yari mu Ishyaka rya MDR. Yakoraga mu bitaro bya Kaminuza i Butare (CHUB) ari nako atanga amasomo muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, Ishami ry’Ubuvuzi. Inkiko Gacaca zamuburanishije adahari ku byaha yakoreye muri CHUB n’ibyaha bya jenoside yakoreye i Tumba aho yari atuye muri komini Ngoma ya Butare. Yakatiwe na Gacaca igifungo cy’imyaka 30 ku wa 05/08/2007 naho ku wa 22/01/2010 Urukiko Gacaca rwa Ngoma mu bujurire rwazamuye igihano rumukatira adahari igifungo cya burundu rumaze kumuhamya uruhare rwe mu itegurwa n’ikorwa rya Jenoside mu Mujyi wa Butare, by’umwihariko muri CHUB aho yishe abagore n’abana kimwe n’aho yari atuye i Tumba. 

Mu mabi yakoreye i Tumba harimo gufungirana Abatutsi mu cyumba cy’inama cya segiteri Tumba akajonjora abicwa barimo Philippe Musake na Laurence Kanayire. Ibindi byamuhamye ni ugutanga intwaro yahawe na Kambanda Jean wari Minisitiri w’Intebe no gukora ubwicanyi kuri bariyeri yo ku Mukoni. Dr Munyemana Sosthène yahungiye mu Bufaransa muri 1994, akomeza akazi ke k’ubuganga mu bitaro bya Villeneuve-sur-Lot, ahagarikwa muri 2009. Mu kwezi ku Ukuboza 2018 umushinjacyaha w’Ubufaransa yafashe icyemezo cyo kumugeza imbere y’ubutabera ariko ikirego cya mbere ku byaha bya Dr MUNYEMANA muri jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi cyatanzwe mu Bufaransa mu Rukiko rwa Bordeaux (TGI Bordeaux) mu mwaka wa 1995.

4.  Dr Rwamucyo Eugène 

Yavukiye mu cyahoze ari Komini Gatonde mu Ruhengeri, akaba yari umuyobozi wa “Centre Universitaire de Santé Publique de Butare/ CUSP”, Ikigo cya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda. Dr Rwamucyo Eugène na we ari ku isonga ry’abateguye Jenoside mu Mujyi wa Butare. Mu byaha yakoze, yategetse abaturage gutaburura imirambo bakajya kuyijugunya mu byobo byari byaracukuwe mbere. Ku wa 02/09/2009, Urukiko Gacaca rwa Ngoma rwamukatiye igihano cy’igifungo cya burundu rumaze kumuhamya ibyaha byo gushinga imitwe y’abicanyi yashishikarizaga ikorwa rya Jenoside, gutanga ibikoresho by’ubwicanyi, gufata bugwate abagore n’abakobwa b’abatutsikazi, kubara no kumenya abishwe. Dr Rwamucyo ageze mu Bufaransa yahawe akazi mu bitaro bya Kaminuza bya Lille nyuma akorera ibitaro bya Maubeuge, ahagarikwa mu Ukwakira 2009, ibyo bitaro bimaze kumenya ko ashakishwa kubera uruhare rwe muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi. 

Ku wa 26/05/2010, Dr Rwamucyo yafashwe na Interpol hashingiwe ku mpapuro zo kumuta muri yombi zatanzwe n’Ubushinjacyaha Bukuru bw’u Rwanda, afatirwa mu irimbi rya Sannois aho yari yagiye guhamba umwicanyi Jean Bosco Barayagwiza waguye muri gereza y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye muri Benin aho yakoreraga igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka 35 yahawe n’Urukiko Mpanabyaha Mpuzamahanga Rwashyiriweho u Rwanda (TPIR/ICTR). Dr Rwamucyo yafunzwe amezi ane (4) arekurwa ku wa 15/09/2010, Urukiko rw’Ubujurire rwa Versailles (Ubufaransa) rwanga kumwohereza mu Rwanda, ariko rwemeza ko agomba gukurikiranwa mu Bufransa. Imyaka icyenda irarenze nta butabera buratangwa.

5.  Dr Bararengana Séraphin

Akomoka mu Gasiza aho se NTIBAZIRIKANA Jean Baptiste bivugwa ko yatujwe n’abapadiri ahagana muri 1913. Ni ahahoze ari muri Komini Karago, ubu ni mu Mudugudu wa Gasiza, Akagali ka Nyundo, Umurenge wa Rambura mu Karere ka Nyabihu. Igihe kirekire yabaye umuyobozi w’Ishami ry’ubuvuzi (doyen) muri kaminuza y’u Rwanda (UNR) ariko nk’abandi benshi yari n’umuganga muri CHUB. Ni murumuna wa Juvenal Habyarimana wari perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda ndetse akaba no mubagize « AKAZU », agatsiko k’ibikomerezwa mu gisirikare no mu buyobozi bwite bwa Leta kari gafite ijambo rya nyuma ku butegetsi, imiyoborere, ubutabera, ubukungu n’igisirikare by’igihugu. Mu itegurwa rya Jenoside, Dr Bararengana yakanguriye abakozi bo muri CHUB kwitabira ubwicanyi no gutanga ibikoresho byo kwica. Urukiko rwa Gacaca rw’Akagali ka Mamba, Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamukatiye igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari ku wa 05/09/2007. Abandi icyo cyaha cyahamye muri urwo rubanza mu bufatanyacyaha bagahabwa igihano kimwe ni Dr Bigirimana Ignace, Dr Mugabo Pierre na Dr Karemera Alphonse. Dr Bararengana aba mu Bubiligi.

6.  Dr Habarugira Pascal

Yavukiye muri Komini Gafunzo (Cyangugu) mu Karere ka Nyamasheke, Umurenge wa Nyabitekeri mu mwaka wa 1957. Nawe yakoraga muri CHUB ari muganga waminuje mu kuvura abagore (Gynécologue).Jenoside imaze guhagarikwa yabanje gukora igihe gito mu bitaro bikuru bya Kigali (CHK), nyuma asubira gukora muri CHUB kugeza afungwa muri Werurwe 2005. Ku wa 05/09/2007, Ubujurire bw’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamukatiye igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) rumaze kumuhamya ibyaha byo kuba yarayoboye ubwicanyi bwabereye kuri bariyeri yo ku Mukoni yiciweho abantu benshi bajugunywaga mu cyobo bari baracukuye iruhande rwayo bitaga “Icyi Bisi”, kuba yaratanze umututsikazi witwa Mukangango Venantie akicwa, yishe umwana w’uruhinja w’umuhutukazi wari waramubyaranye n’umututsi. Ku wa 06/02/2008 Urukiko Gacaca rwamukatiye igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19) rumaze gusuzuma isubirishamo rye. Afungiye muri gereza ya Nyarugenge.

7.  Dr Nsengiyumva Jean Népomuscène

Yavukiye mu cyahoze ari komini Ruhondo (Ruhengeri) mu w’i 1947. Nyuma ya jenoside ahungutse yakoze mu bitaro bikuru bya Ruhengeri kugeza afashwe muri 2005. Nawe ku wa 05/09/2007, yahamijwe jenoside na Gacaca yo mu Mujyi wa Butare ku byaha byo kuba yarajyaga mu nama zitegura kwica Abatutsi muri CHUB, gushishikariza abaganga, abaforomo n’abakozi ba CHUB gukora Jenoside no kubabuza kwakira no kuvura abarwayi b’abatutsi, bamwe bikaba byarabaviriyemo gupfa. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30), afungiye muri gereza ya Huye. Umugore weDr NYIRARUHANGO Berthe yakatiwe n’Inkiko Gacaca igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 26/09/2007 adahari.

8.  Dr Nyiraruhango Berthe

Ni umuganga w’inzobere mu kuvura indwara zo mu muhogo, amazuru n’amatwi (ORL) wari warashakanye na Dr NSENGIYUMVA Jean Népomuscène. Bombi bakora mu bitaro ya Kaminuza y’u Rwanda. Dr Nyiraruhango Berthe yatangiye ubugome bwo kwikoma Abatutsi kuva muri 1990 ubwo bafungaga abo bitaga ibyitso by’Inkotanyi, we yari mu bakoraga lisiti z’abatutsi bo gufunga. Muri jenoside, Dr Nyiraruhango yatotezaga abarwayi b’abatutsi akabaka indangamuntu akabarangira Interahamwe n’abasilikare bakaza bakabatwara bakabica; yanze kwakira no kuvura abarwayi b’abatutsi avuga ko atavura inyenzi. Mu bo yishe bemejwe na Gacaca harimo umuforomo witwaga Hawa; yarezwe kandi kuba yarashimangiye umwana umusumari mu gutwi avuga ko atavura Inyenzi. Nyuma ya jenoside, yahungiye muri Kenya. Ku wa 26/09/2007 nibwo Urukiko Gacaca rwamukatiye igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari. Bivugwa ko yaguye mu buhungiro. Umugabo we, Dr Nsengiyumva Jean Nepomuscene, afungiye muri gereza ya Huye, yakatiwe gifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) kubera ibyaha bya jenoside yakoreye i Butare. 

9.  Dr Mugabo Pierre 

Ni umukwe wa Mbonyumutwa Dominique. Muri 1994 yakoraga muri “Laboratoire pharmaceutique” i Butare. Yakoze jenoside mu bitaro bya Kaminuza, agaragara no mu bwicanyi bwakorerwaga kuri bariyeri imbere ya Hotel Faucon. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka 30 n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma, mu Karere ka Huye ku wa 05/09/2007 jenoside ku byaha byo kwica abaganga n’abarimu bari batuye i Buye, kuba mu gitero cyatwaye abana 25 bakuwe mu Rugo rukuru rw’Abenebikira (Maison Generalice) no gutanga abarwayi bakajya kwicwa. Yakoze jenoside afatanyije n’umugore we Feresita Musanganire wakoraga muri CUSP Butare. Aba muri Afurika y’Epfo aho akora muri kaminuza ya Western Cape, mu ishami rya farumasi. We n’umugore we Musanganire Feresita bakora muri iyo kaminuza kandi bombi bakatiwe n’Inkiko Gacaca kubera ibyaha bya jenoside bakoreye muri Butare.

10.  Dr Kageruka Martin

Yari umuganga uvura indwara z’abagore (Gynécologie) muri CHUB ari na Nyumbakumi aho yari atuye. Yavukiye ku Kibuye muri Komini Mabanza, segiteri Mushubati muri 1946. Yaburaniye mu nkiko zisanzwe. Mu byaha byamuhamye harimo kwitabira inama zitegura kandi zishishikariza ikorwa rya Jenoside muri CHUB, gukangurira abakozi ba CHUB gukora Jenoside harimo gushishikariza abaganga n’abaforomo kwanga kwakira no kuvura abarwayi b’Abatutsi. Mu byaha byahamye Dr Kageruka kandi, afatanyije na Liyetona Pierre Bizimana ku mabwiriza ya Kapiteni Ildephonse Nizeyimana, harimo iyicwa ry’umwamikazi Rosalie Gicanda. Haba mu Rukiko rwa mbere Rwiremezo rwa Butare haba no mu Rukiko rw’Ubujurire rwa Kigali hose yahanishijwe igihano cy’igifungo cya burundu. Afungiye muri Gereza ya Nyarugenge.

11.  Dr Ndindabahizi Jean Chrysostome 

Yakoraga muri CUSP, akomoka muri Nyakizu i Butare. Yari mu Ishyaka riharanira Imibereho Myiza na Demokarasi (PSD) nyuma ajya mu gice cya PSD power.  Yashinjwe mu rubanza rumwe na Dr Runyinya Barabwiriza wari umwarimu muri Kaminuza, akaba n’Umujyanama wa Perezida Habyarimana mu bya politiki. Ni urubanza rwabaye ku wa 05/09/2007. Kuwa 11/05/2008, Inteko ya Tumba B yamukatiye adahari igihano cyo gufungwa burundu. Umugore we Dr Nduwamariya Jeanneavugwa mu kugira uruhare mu itegurwa rya Jenoside no mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo cyane cyane yitabira ubwicanyi kuri za bariyeri z’i Tumba. Aba bombi baba muri Gabon.

12.  Dr Habiyaremye Innocent

Akomoka mu cyahoze ari Komini Nkumba mu Ruhengeri aho yavukiye muri 1951. Ni inzobere yize microbiologie mu Bubiligi akaba yarakoraga muri laboratwari ya CHUB. Yahungiye ku Gikongoro agumayo akora muri Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) kugeza afashwe agafungwa muri 1995.Yahamijwe ibyaha byo kuyobora inama zitegura Jenoside, gushyiraho za bariyeri no kuziyobora, ahanishwa igifungo cya burundu. Afungiye muri gereza ya Huye. 

13.  Dr Mutwewingabo Bernard 

Yari inzobere muri Anatomie – pathologie, akora muri laboratwari ya CHUB. Yahamwe n’ibyaha byo gutegura Jenoside, kwica no kugaba ibitero muri Kaminuza i Butare no mu Mujyi wa Butare. Ku wa 27/05/2009, Urukiko Gacaca rw’ubujurire rwa Ngoma rwamukatiye igifungo cya burundu y’umwihariko. Yaguye muri gereza ya Huye. Umugore we, Marie-Thérèse Kampire, wigishaga muri Kaminuza, akaba umukobwa wa Dr Venant Ntabombura, yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19) kubera gukora ibyaha bya jenoside mu Mujyi wa Butare.

14.  Dr Bigirimana Ignacebitaga Sederi (CDR)

Akomoka muri Komini Gaseke (Gisenyi). Yavuraga muri CHUB. Yakatiwe na Gacaca igihano cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 05/09/2007 ahamijwe icyaha cyo kujya mu mutwe w’abicanyi no kwica abatutsi i Butare. Yahungiye muri Kenya urubanza rutararangira ariko ubu aba muri Eswatini (igihugu cyahoze cyitwa Swaziland) akaba akora mu bitaro byitwa Mbabane Governmental Hospital.

15.  Dr Karemera Alphonse

Yavukiye muri Komini Nyabikenke (Gitarama) muri 1951. Yari umuyobozi w’Ishami ry’ubuganga rya Kaminuza i Butare. Dr Karemera ni umwicanyi ruharwa wayoboye ubwicanyi bwabereye mu bitaro bya Kaminuza i Butare no muri Kaminuza ahiciwe abanyeshuri, abakozi n’abarimu b’abatutsi. Yitabiriye anayobora inama zitegura kandi zikangurira gukora Jenoside muri CHUB akagera n’aho ashishikariza abaganga n’abaforomo kwanga kwakira no kuvura abarwayi b’abatutsi. Yakatiwe na Gacaca adahari igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 05/09/2007.

16.  Dr Hakizimana Deogratias

Yashinjwe mu rubanza rumwe na Dr Runyinya Barabwiriza wari umwarimu muri Kaminuza, akaba n’Umujyanama mu bya politiki wa Perezida Habyarimana, rwabaye ku wa 05/09/2007. Dr Hakizimana Deo yavugwagaho kuba yarajyaga mu nama zitegura kwica Abatutsi, gushishikariza Jenoside no kujya mu bitero.

17.  Dr Nduwamariya Jeanne

Yari umuganga mu bitaro bya Kabutare GSOB. Akomoka muri Komini Ndora (Butare). Yagize uruhare mu itegurwa rya Jenoside no mu ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryayo cyane cyane yitabira ubwicanyi kuri za bariyeri z’i Tumba. Azwiho cyane kwibasira by’umwihariko umuryango wa Berekimasi ahiga bukware umukobwa we Chantal kugeza aho yatangaga amafaranga ngo ahigwe, aboneke yicwe. Ariko nawe yivugiraga ko azamwiyicira. Hari inama nyinshi zitegura Jenoside zabereye mu rugo rwe n’umugabo we. Ni umugore wa Dr Jean Chrysostome Ndindabahizi. Yaburanishijwe n’Inkiko Gacaca adahari akatirwa burundu y’umwihariko n’Inteko ya Tumba B tariki ya 28/10/2009.

18.  Dr Mwigimba Cyrille

Yari umuganga muri CHUB. Yahamijwe icyaha cya Jenoside ku wa 20/11/2009 n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Butare-Ville kigizwe n’ibi bikorwa: kwanga kuvura abarwayi b’abatutsi akabavangura no kubaha abasilikare bakabica afatanyije na Dr Rugina Nizeyimana Emmanuel na Dr Habimana Lin, kujya mu nama zateguraga Jenoside muri Kaminuza no muri CHUB, gutunga imbunda mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko aho yari atuye ku i Taba no kujya mu bitero byishe Abatutsi mu Rugo rukuru rw’Abenebikira (Maison Generalice), ahavanywe abana makumyabiri na batanu (25) bakajyanwa kwicwa. Urukiko rwamukatiye igifungo cya burundu y’umwihariko.

19.  Dr Habimana Lin

Ni umuganga w’umurundi wakoraga mu bitaro bya kaminuza. Ku wa 20/11/2009 yahamijwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Butare-Ville mu rubanza rumwe na Dr Rugina na Dr Mwigimba ibyaha byo gutunga agatoki abarwayi b’Abatutsi bakabaha abasirikare bo mu Ishuri ry’abasuzofisiye (Ecole des Sous-Officiers - ESO) ngo bajye kwicwa, kwanga kuvura abarwayi b’abatutsi bakabavangura bakabaha abasilikare n’Interahamwe bakajyanwa kwicwa, kwitabira inama z’ubwicanyi muri CHUB no muri Kaminuza bagambiriye kwicisha abakozi n’abanyeshuri b’abatutsi. Yahanishijwe igihano cy’igifungo cya burundu adahari. 

20.  Dr Nyagasaza Aloys

Yakatiwe ku wa 16/11/2009 n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma igifungo cya burundu amaze guhamwa n’ibyaha byo kwamamara mu bwicanyi mu Mujyi wa Butare cyane cyane ku Mukoni na Kabutare, kwicira Abatutsi kuri bariyeri, gutunda imirambo akoresheje imodoka no kuba yarishe ubwe Nkundayezu Bernardin na Mushumba. Dr Nyagasaza kandi yari yaragaragaye nk’umufatanyacyaha wa Dr Habarugira Pascal mu rubanza rwaciwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma ku wa 06/02/2008, ahamwa n’ibyaha birimo kuba kuri bariyeri yo ku Mukoni yiciweho abantu benshi.

21.  Dr Sijyeniyo Charles

Yari umuganga w’amenyo n’indwara zo mu kanwa wize mu gihugu cy’Uburusiya, akomoka i Cyarwa mu cyahoze ari perefegitura ya Butare. Yahamijwe jenoside n’Inteko Gacaca yo mu Mujyi wa Butare ku wa 05/09/2007, hamwe na Dr Hakizimana Deo. Ibyaha byamuhamye ni ibyo kuba yarajyaga mu nama zitegura kwica Abatutsi, gushishikariza Jenoside no kujya mu bitero. 

22.  Dr Twagirayezu Emmanuel

Yavutse muri 1950, avukira muri komini Ndora mu cyahoze ari perefegitura ya Butare, ubu ni mu Karere ka Gisagara. Ku wa 26/03/2010, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamuhamije ibyaha bya jenoside birimo: kujya mu nama zitegura Jenoside, guha abasilikare abatutsi biciwe ku bitaro, gushishikariza ikorwa rya Jenoside, kujya mu bitero akaba yaragize uruhare mu iyicwa ry’abatutsi bitwa Mujejende na Sebera no gusambanya abatutsikazi ku gahato barimo abanyeshuri. 

Yakatiwe adahari igifungo cya burundu.

23.  Dr Ngirabatware Bruno

Yavuraga mu bitaro bya Kaminuza i Butare. Nyuma ya Jenoside yahungiye muri Malawi, akaba ashakishwa n’ubutabera bw’u Rwanda. Yakatiwe imyaka 30 y’igifungo. Avukana na Mbonampeka Stanislas wahoze ari Minisitiri w’ubucamanza wo muri PL power wakoreye Jenoside i Ndera. Dr Ngirabatware Bruno yakatiwe imyaka 30 y’igifungo, atoroka ubutabera urubanza rutararangira. 

24.  Dr Gatera Godefroid

Yakoraga muri serivisi yo kubaga abarwayi (chirurgie). Urukiko Gacaca rwa Butare rwamuhamije ibyaha byo gutegura no gukora Jenoside muri CHUB. Yaguye muri gereza ya Huye aho yakoreraga igihano yahawe.

25.  Dr Murengezi Ildephonse 

Yari umuyobozi w’ikigo kigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe imiti (Laboratoire Pharmaceutique  bitaga LABOPHAR) I Butare. Akomoka mu yahoze ariko Komini Ruhashya muri Butare, ubu ni mu Karere ka Huye. Nawe yakoreye Jenoside I Butare. Ku wa 26/03/2009, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma, Akarere ka Huye, rwamukatiye igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19) rumaze kumuhamya ibyaha byo kujya kuri bariyeri yiciweho Abatutsi no mu bitero byishe Abatutsi ahantu hatandukanye mu Mujyi wa Butare. Yahamwe kandi no kujya mu nama zitegura Jenoside zaberaga kwa Gasengayire, akaba yaranakanguriraga abakozi yayoboraga gushakisha no kwica Abatutsi. Ubu aba mu Bufransa cyangwa mu Busuwisi. 

26.  Dr Rutagengwa Emmanuel

Yavukiye i Cyarwa muri Komini Ngoma i Butare muri 1954, ubu ni mu Karere ka Huye. Muri 1994 yakoraga mu kigo cy’igihugu gishinzwe imiti cyari gifite icyicaro i Butare. Kuwa 29/10/2008, Inteko Gacaca ya Cyarwa Cyimana A yamukatiye igihano cy’igifungo cya burundu y’umwihariko amaze guhamwa n’ibyaha bya jenoside muri Butare. Mu byaha byamuhamye harimo gukoresha inama zitegura kandi zikora Jenoside, kuba yarahoraga yitwaje imbunda, akaba yarajyanye imodoka ya LABOPHAR irimo abasilikare gukora ubwicanyi burimo ubwahitanye Nzovu. Yagiye mu bitero byinshi afatanyije na Niyibizi Benoit, Gashirabake Louis, Mutwewingabo na Sendege. Yagiye kandi mu gitero cyagiye guhiga umugabo wa Ntakirutimana Mariya. Yahamwe kandi n’icyaha cyo gusambanya abagore n’abakobwa b’abatutsikazi ku gahato. Ubu aba mu gihugu cya Malawi.

27.  Teganya Leonard

Muri 1994 yari umunyeshuri mu mwaka wa nyuma wa kaminuza, Ishami ry’ubuganga. Yakoraga urutonde rw’abarwayi b’Abatutsi binjiye mu bitaro, akajya kuzana interahamwe n’abasirikare bakabatwara bakabica. We ubwe yarishe, afata n’abagore ku ngufu.  Muri 1994, Teganya yahungiye muri Canada asaba ubuhungiro, nyuma ahungira muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika, afatirwayo, akatirwa igifungo cy’amezi 97 kubera kubeshya inzego z’abinjira n’abasohoka muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika ku ruhare rwe muri Jenoside. 

28.  Bikomagu

Yigaga muri Kaminuza Ishami ry’ubuvuziari n’umusilikare, acumbitse kwa Dr Ndindabahizi Jean Chrysostome.  Mu rubanza rwa Dr Habarugira Pascal rwaciwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma ku wa 06/02/2008, Bikomagu yagaragajwe nk’umuntu wagize uruhare mu bitero bwo guhiga abatutsi babaga bataricwa muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda (UNR), mu ishyamba rya kaminuza (Arboretum) no mu byumba babaga bihishemo.

29.  Mupenzi Jean de la Paix

Yari umunyeshuri muri kaminuza, urukiko Gacaca rwa Butare ville A rwamukatiye igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 09/10/2009. Yatorotse ubutabera amaze gukatirwa. Bikomagu, Mupenzi na Teganya muri Butare bafatwaga nk’abaganga (docteurs) kuko bigaga mu Ishami ry’ubuvuzi kandi bababona mu bitaro bimenyereza.


  1. URUHARE RW’ABAFOROMO MURI JENOSIDE MU MUJYI WA BUTARE

1.  Remera Simeon

Yari umuforomo (assistant médical) akorera ikigo cy’abafite ubumuga bwo mu mutwe cya CARAES, ishami rya Butare. Yari umukuru wa CDR muri Perefegitura ya Butare. Ni umwe mu bayoboye Jenoside ahantu hatandukanye mu Mujyi wa Butare no muri Komini Runyinya aho yakomokaga.Kuwa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamukatiye adahari igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30).Umugore we, Gemma, yari umuforomokazi, Urukiko Gacaca rwa Tumba B rwamukatiye ku wa 27/07/2009 igihano cyo gufungwa burundu rumaze kumuhamya ibyaha bya jenoside yakoreye i Tumba.

2.  Musanganire Felesita

Yakoraga mu mushinga wa SIDA mu kigo cya kaminuza cyari gishinzwe ubuvuzi rusange (CUSP). Akomoka i Gitarama, ni umukobwa wa Dominique Mbonyumutwa wagizwe Perezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda. Ku wa 20/12/2006, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamukatiye adahari igifungo cy’imyaka makumyabiri n’itanu (25). Mu byaha byamuhamye harimo iyicwa rya Prof. Pierre-Claver Karenzi biciye kuri bariyeri y’imbere ya Hotel Faucon, gufatanya na Dr Eugene Rwamucyo mu rupfu rwa Cécile Nyirasikubwabo wahoze ari umukozi wa CUSP. Kuri iyo bariyeri Félicitée Musanganire yakoraga akazi ko kugenzura indangamuntu z’abantu atandukanya Abahutu n’Abatutsi, agatanga Abatutsi bakicwa n’interahamwe n’abasilikare. Yahungiye muri Afurika y’Epfo aho akora mu kigo gishinzwe iby’icyorezo cya sida cya kaminuza ya Western Cape, ari naho yakomereje amashuri amaze guhunga. Umugabo we Dr Pierre Mugabo bafatanyije gukora jenoside i Butare yakatiwe igihano cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 05/09/2007.

3.  Umubikira Mukarubibi Tewopista

Ni umwenebikira wari ushinzwe igikoni cya CHUB mu bijyanye no kugaburira abarwayi biganjemo abakene badafite imiryango yabo ibagemurira. Yahamijwe ibyaha bitandukanye kubera gufatanya n’abaganga, abaforomo n’abandi bakozi ba CHUB mu bwicanyi bwakorewe mu bitaro bya Kaminuza. Inteko y’Urukiko Gacaca rwa Butare-ville rwamukatiye imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 11/08/2006. Afungiye muri gereza ya Nyamagabe.

4.  Mukamuzima Philomene alias Kinanda

Yavukiye ku Gikongoro muri 1954 mu yahoze ari komini Nshili.  Yakoze muri ONAPO/ Butare kuva muri 1993 ashinzwe serivisi yo kuringaniza imbyaro avuye muri CUSP aho yari umuforomokazi.  Yabaga mu itsinda ry’abicanyi ryari ryarashyizweho na Pauline Nyiramasuhuko n’umuhungu we Arsene Shalom Ntahobari, akaba yari n’inshuti magara ya Dr Seraphin Bararengana, murumuna wa Perezida Habyarimana. Yabaga kandi mu itsinda ry’abategura Jenoside ryo muri CUSP. Mu bwicanyi yafatanyije kandi na Dr Rwamucyo Eugene na Depite Febronie Nsaguye wo muri MRND. Ku wa 26/03/2008, yahamijwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma ibyaha byo kujya mu nama zitegura jenoside kuri CUSP, gushyigikira ikorwa rya jenoside, kugenzura no kugambanira abakozi bagenzi be b’abatutsi bakicwa. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19).

5.  Mukarurangwa Marie Rose bitaga Kaporali

Akomoka i Mpare mu yahoze ari Komini Huye aho yavukiye muri 1959, ubu ni mu Karere ka Huye.Ni umukobwa wa Banyangiriki Zakariya wabaye Depite wa MRND igihe kinini. Bamuhimbaga izina rya Kaporali kubera ubugome bwe. Ku wa 04/06/2008, yahamijwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma ibyaha byo kujya mu nama zitegura jenoside kuri CUSP, gushyigikira ikorwa rya jenoside, kugenzura no kugambanira abakozi bagenzi be b’abatutsi bakicwa, harimo barindwi (7) bashoboye kumenyekana. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19)

6.  Mukabandora Scolastique

Yari umuforomo mu bitaro bikuru bya kaminuza (CHUB) i Butare. Yavukiye i Ruli mu cyahoze ari komini Nyamabuye (Gitarama) mu mwaka wa 1952. Ku wa 05/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Butare rwamuhamije icyaha cyo kwaka indangamuntu abarwayi, gucomokora serumu z’abarwayi b’abatutsi, kwica ubwe uruhinja arukubise hasi rucuritse umutwe, gutanga abarwayi ngo bajye kwicwa no kujya mu nama zitegura ubwicanyi ku bitaro. Yari yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) nyuma gihindurwamo igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19) mu bujurire ku wa 15/03/2008. Yarangije igihano.

7.  Mukamunana Juliette

Yavutse muri 1952, avukira i Gahini mu Karere ka Kayonza. Yakoraga mu mushinga wa Croix Rouge muri CHUB. Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamuhamije ibyaha byo kugambanira abatutsi bakicwa, kwigamba no kwishimira iyicwa ry’abatutsi, kwaka indangamuntu agamije kuvangura no kwerekana abatutsi bo kwica. Ku wa 16/03/2007 Inteko y’Umurenge wa Ngoma (Huye) yemeje guhindura imikirize y’urubanza rwa mbere yakatiwemo igihano cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30). Uru Rukiko rwasanze ubuhamya bwatanzwe budahuye n’ibyaha by’uregwa, rumuhanisha igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19). Yarangije igihano yakatiwe.

8.  Uwimana Tereza 

Akomoka ku Gisenyi, yari umuforomokazi ukorera muri CUSP. Ku wa 04/06/2008, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Butare Ville rwamuhamije ibyaha byo kujya mu nama zateguye Jenoside kuri CUSP, kugambanira abakozi b’abatutsi bakicwa no gushishikariza ikorwa rya Jenoside. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19).

9.  Nyiramisago Tereza

Akomoka muri Komini Shyanda (Butare), akaba ari mushiki wa Tewodori Sindikubwabo wari perezida wa Guverinoma y’Abatabazi. Yabaga mu itsinda ry’abategura Jenoside. Ku wa 04/06/2008, yahamijwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma ibyaha byo kujya mu nama zitegura jenoside kuri CUSP, gushyigikira ikorwa rya jenoside, kugenzura no kugambanira abakozi bagenzi be b’abatutsi bakicwa, harimo barindwi bashoboye kumenyekana. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19).

10.  Kantengwa Annonciata 

Akomoka muri Komini Ngoma (Butare). Yabaga mu itsinda ry’abategura Jenoside. 

Ku wa 04/06/2008, yahamijwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma ibyaha byo kujya mu nama zitegura jenoside kuri CUSP, gushyigikira ikorwa rya jenoside, kugenzura no kugambanira abakozi bagenzi be b’abatutsi bakicwa, harimo barindwi (7) bashoboye kumenyekana. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19).

11.  Nyirahirwa Immakulata

Ku wa 30/01/2008, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamuhamije ibyaha bya jenoside byo kwica abatutsi muri CHUB, kwica impinja akazijugunya mu cyobo cya ruhurura. N’ubwo ibyo byaha bikomeye kandi akaba yaraburanye atemera icyaha Urukiko rwamuhanishije igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’itanu (15). Ni igihano gito ugereranyije n’uburemere bw’icyaha cyo kwica impinja kandi yari umuforomo. Mu rundi rubanza rwabaye ku wa 26/09/2007, Nyirahirwa Immaculée yari yahanishijwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18).

12.  Musabyemariya Mariserina 

Akomoka mu cyahoze ari Komini Ndora (Butare). Ni umukobwa wa Dr Ntabomvura Venant. Ku wa 16/07/2008 yahamijwe n’Urukiko Gacaca rwa Butare Ville, Umurenge wa Ngoma icyaha cya Jenoside kigizwe no kuvuga amagambo ashishikariza umugambi wa Jenoside no kuba yari mu gatsiko k’abagore bakoraga inama zitegura Jenoside kuri CUSP. Yaburanye yemera icyaha, ariko abikora atinze. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’ibiri (12).

13.  Murara Gabriel

Ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Akagari ka Mamba rwamuhamije icyaha cya Jenoside akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari ahamijwe icyaha cyo kwica Abatutsi muri CHUB no mu Mujyi wa Butare.

Urukiko Gacaca rwa Gishamvu rwamukatiye igifungo cya burundu ku wa 19/12/2008.

14.  Twahirwa Joseph

Yahamijwe ibyaha bya jenoside bigizwe no: kujya mu bitero, gukoresha inama zitegura Jenoside, gutanga udushoka two gukora Jenoside, kwigisha abakozi bato gukora jenoside no gukora Jenoside muri CHUB. Ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Umurenge wa Ngoma rwamuhamije icyaha cya Jenoside akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari.

15.  Uwimbabazi Emmanuel bitaga Irivan 

Yari ukuriye abaforomo n’ababyaza ku bitaro bya Kabutare. Hari n’abandi bagenzi be babiri (2) Ildephonse wakoraga muri Laboratwari na Alexis wakoraga muri serivisi y’ubuvuzi bw’abana nabo bagize uruhare mu kwica abatutsi mu Mujyi wa Butare no ku bitaro bya Kabutare.

16.  Habimana Athanase

Ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije icyaha cya Jenoside akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari ahamijwe icyaha cyo kwica Abatutsi muri CHUB no mu Mujyi wa Butare.

17.  Gatera Anastase

Ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rw’Akagari ka Mamba rwamuhamije icyaha cya Jenoside akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari ahamijwe icyaha cyo kwica Abatutsi muri CHUB no mu Mujyi wa Butare.

18.  Kubwimana Theodore

Ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije icyaha cya Jenoside akatirwa igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) adahari ahamijwe icyaha cyo kwica Abatutsi muri CHUB no mu Mujyi wa Butare.

19.  Mukandekezi Foromina

Urukiko Gacaca rwa Ngoma rwamuhamije ibyaha byo kuba yarakaga abatutsi indangamuntu akazishyikiriza abasilikare bakabica, gusohora abarwayi b’abatutsi mu bitaro bya CHUB ngo bicwe n’ubufatanyacyaha mu iyicwa ry’Abatutsibaguye mu bitaro bya kaminuza. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 19/03/2008.

20.  Rwaliye Constance 

Ni umurundikazi wakoraga muri serivisi y’ababyeyi (maternite) ya CHUB. Yicishije abarwayi n’abakozi b’Abatutsi harimo uwari umukozi muri laboratwari ya CHUB witwaga Protais Nyangezi. Nyuma ya jenoside yasubiye i Burundi. Ku wa 05/09/2007, yakatiwe adahari n’Urukiko Gacaca igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19).

21.  Hakizimana Gerard alias Kazungu

Ku wa 29/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije ibyaha byo kujya mu nama z’ubwicanyi muri CHUB, gufatanya n’abandi kwica abatutsi muri CHUB no muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda. Yakatiwe adahari igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18).

22.  Ryumeko Charlotte yari umuforomokazi w’Umurundi. Ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije Jenoside rumukatira igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30).

23.  Nikuze Venantie, ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije ibyaha bya Jenoside rumukatira igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18). 

24.  Mukarugwiza Monique, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije ibyaha bya Jenoside rumukatira igifungo cy’imyaka mirongo itatu (30) ku wa 26/09/2007.

25.  Ukobizaba Janvier, ku wa 26/09/2007 yahamijwe ibyaha bya jenoside, Urukiko Gacaca rumukatira igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18).

26.  Nahimana Jean yakatiwe n’Urukiko Gacaca igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18) ku wa 26/09/200 rwamuhamije ibyaha bya Jenoside.

27.  Ntahobavukira Réverien ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije ibyaha bya Jenoside rumukatira igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18).

28.  Kangabo Boniface yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18) ku wa 26/09/2007, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije ibyaha bya Jenoside.

29.  Rubangisa Alexis, Urukiko Gacaca rwamuhamije ibyaha bya Jenoside rumukatira igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’umunani (18) ku wa 26/09/2007.

30.  Munyentwali Martin yakatiwe n’Inteko Gacaca ya Butare Ville igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19) ku wa 21/11/2009.

31.  Usabayezu Emmanuel kuwa 25/10/2006 yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka cumi n’icyenda (19) n’Inteko Gacaca ya Butare Ville

Umwanzuro

Uru rutonde rw’abaganga n’abaforomo bijanditse muri Jenoside mu Mujyi wa Butare wonyine rurerekana ko abari bashinzwe kuvura abantu batatiye igihango cy’umwuga wabo. Rurerekana kandi uburyo Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi yabaye icyaha ndengakamere aho abaganga bareka umwuga wabo wo kurengera ubuzima bagahitamo kwica. Ibihugu bamwe muri aba bicanyi bahungiyemo bigikeka ko ari abaganga biribeshya. Bakwiye guhagarikwa ku murimo wo kuvura, bakavanwa ku rutonde rw’abaganga bemerewe gukora umwuga wo kuvura. Bakwiye kandi gushyikirizwa ubutabera mu gihe cya vuba kugira ngo abo biciye bahabwe ubutabera.

CNLG yishimiye ibyemezo byafatiwe bamwe mu baganga batorotse ubutabera mu bihugu bimwe, ibyemezo byo kubahagarika ku murimo wo kuvura no kubageza imbere y’umucamanza, kugira ngo baryozwe icyaha cya Jenoside.

CNLG ishimiye abantu bose bakomeje kugira uruhare muri iki gikorwa cy’ubutabera mu mahanga kugira ngo abakoze Jenoside bagatoroka igihugu babazwe ibyo bakoze.

Kigali, 14/05/2020

Dr BIZIMANA Jean Damascène

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa

Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside, CNLG.



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