Itangizwa rya Opération Turquoise yaje gutabara Guverinoma y’abicanyi n’ingabo zayo

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Itangizwa rya Opération Turquoise yaje gutabara Guverinoma y’abicanyi n’ingabo zayo

Yanditswe Jun, 22 2020 10:29 AM
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Kuva muri Mata 1994, FPR yiyemeje kurwanya Jenoside, irwana inkundura na Guverinoma y abicanyi, bituma irokora ubuzima bw’abantu ibihumbi n’ibihumbi bari bagiye kwicwa. Mu gihe cya Jenoside, abasirikare ba Guverinoma y’abicanyi barimo batsindwa ku rugamba, bitabazaga buri gihe igihugu cy’Ubufaransa kugira ngo kibafashe. Guverinoma y’abicanyi yabonaga operasiyo Turquoise nk’igisubizo kubyo yifuzaga, n’Ubufaransa bukayibonamo uburyo bwo kuyitabara.

Inama Ishinzwe Amahoro kw’isi y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, mu cyemezo cyayo 929 cyo kuwa 22 Kamena 1994 cyafashwe hakurikijwe igice cya VII cy’amategeko kandi ibisabwe n’Ubufaransa, yemeye ko habaho operasiyo yitwa ngo n’iy’ubutabazi ishobora no gukoresha ingufu bibaye ngombwa. Nyamara ubwo bubasha bari babwimye MINUAR yakoreshaga igice cya VI cy’amategeko, idashobora gukoresha ingufu. Turquoise yemejwe mu buryo butumvikana. Abantu bose babonaga ishinzwe guhagarika Jenoside no gutabara Abatutsi bari bakiriho. Nibyo abayobozi b’Abafaransa bagendaga bavuga, bakunganirwa n’ibinyamakuru byandikaga ibyo servisi y’itangazamakuru y’Ingabo z’Ubufaransa (SIRPA) yababwiraga kwandika.

Ariko mu by’ukuri, nkuko bigaragara mu ngingo ya 2 y’icyemezo 929 Umuryango w’Abibumbye yemerera iyo operasiyo gukoresha igice cya VII cy’amategeko, byari guha umutekano no gutabara, mu buryo budafite aho bibogamiye, abantu bavuye mu byabo, impunzi n’abasivili bari mu kaga mu Rwanda. Icyo gihe abenshi mu Batutsi bari barishwe. Abantu bavuye mu byabo, impunzi n’abasivili bari Abahutu, muri bo hari byibura 100,000 bari baritabiriye ubwicanyi.

Nkuko iyo operasiyo itagombaga kugira aho ibogamira, ni ukuvuga ko itagombaga kwita kuri Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi, dore ko no muri icyo cyemezo Jenoside itarigeze ivugwa, Ubufaransa bwakoresheje iyo operasiyo mu gutabara Abahutu, Guverinoma y’abicanyi, abasirikare bayo n’imitwe yitwara gisirikare yayo. Ku buryo bugaragara, bwashakaga kubuza FPR gutsinda intambara, byibura kuyihagarika no kuyitegeka kugirana imishyikirano n’amashyaka ya politiki y’Abahutu.

1.  Operasiyo Turquoise yabaye ikimenyetso cyo kwirengagiza kw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye

Général Romeo Dallaire yari yarasabye ko bngerera ububasha ingabo za MINUAR ariko barabimwangira. Dallaire yatangajwe cyane no kumenya ibya operasiyo Turquoise, kandi yabimenye atinze mu gihe ingabo za Leta zo zari zizi ibyaganirwaga muri ONU. Operasio Turquoise yemerewe hirengagijwe kuba MINUAR iri mu Rwanda.Umunyamabanga Mukuru wa ONU, Boutros-Boutros Ghali yakiranye ibyishimo ishyirwaho rya operasiyo Turquoise.

Iyo operasiyo, yemejwe Jenoside yenda kurangizwa, yirengagije ko Abatutsi barenga miliyoni bari bamaze kwicwa, kuko yari igamije gushyiraho igice cyiswe icy’ubutabazi kugira ngo abavuye mu byabo babone umutekano. Abo bavuye mu byabo bari abaturage basunikwa na Guverinoma y’abicanyi kugira ngo bayikingire ikibaba ishobore kwambuka muri Zaire. 

Gutabara Abatutsi ntabwo byari byitaweho, icyari cyitaweho ariko kitavugwaga ku mugaragaro ni uguhagarika FPR no kongera ubuso bw’igice cyagenzurwaga na Guverinoma kugira ngo bayoherereze kuba yakwinjira mu mishikirano. 

2.  Operasiyo Turquoise yari igisubizo ku busabe bwa Guverinoma y’abicanyi n’ingabo zayo

Mu gihe inkuru ya operasiyo Turquoise yari imaze gutangazwa kuri RTLM, abasirikare bo mu kigo cya gisirikare cya Kigali no mu bindi bice byari bikigenzurwa na Leta y’abicanyi, barabyishimiye cyane babona ko Ubufaransa buje kubatabara.

Jean Kambanda wari Minisitiri w’Intebe wa Guverinoma y’abicanyi yatekerezaga ko Abafaransa baje gufatanya n’abasirikare ba Leta , guhera mu gice cy’uburengerazuba kirimo Gikongoro, Kibuye na Cyangugu, kurwanya FPR. Ntabwo yibeshyaga kuko operasiyo Turquoise yari operasiyo ya gisirikare yashyiriweho gutsinda FPR no gufasha Guverinoma y’abicanyi.

Muri raporo ye y’ubutumwa bwe i Paris, kuva ku ya 9 kugeza ku ya 13 Gicurasi 1994, lieutenant-colonel Ephrem Rwabalinda yavuze ibiganiro yagiranye na Général Jean-Pierre Huchon wari yamubwiye ko ibikoresho by’itumanaho bidashobora kumvirizwa byari byaramaze koherezwa ku cyambu cya Ostende bijya mu Rwanda, kandi ko Abafaransa biteguye gutanga ubufasha. Iyo raporo yerekana ko Rwabalinda yoherejwe i Paris kuganira ku buryo Ubufaransa buzafasha Guverinoma y’u Rwanda.

3.  Mitterrand yifuzaga intambara yeruye kugira ngo atabare Guverinoma y’abicanyi n’ingabo zayo

Uburyo Ubufaransa bwahaye u Rwanda ubufasha bwa gisirikare, icyo byari bigamije  n’uburyo byakozwe, ntabwo Perezida Francois Mitterrand yabyumvikanagaho na Minisitiri w’Intebe Balladur mu gihe Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’amahanga Juppee we yafashe umurongo wa Mitterrand.

Perezida Mitterrand we yashakaga kohereza ingabo i Kigali, bakayigabanyamo kabiri kimwe n’igihugu cyose kugira ngo ingabo za Leta zisubirane ibice zari zaratakaje, cyangwa se kugira ngo habe imishyikirano byifashishijwe igice cyaba kirinzwe n’ingabo z’Abafaransa. Kuza kw’ingabo z’Abafaransa gutera inkunga ingabo za Leta muri Jenoside hagati byasaga nk’aho byari byarateguwe mu mezi yari yashize.

Alison Des Forges yavuze ko abadipolomati b’Abafaransa bari bashinzwe kuvugira operasiyo Turquoise mu Nama y’Umutekano ya ONU, baba barerekanye igishushanyo kerekana aho ingabo zabo zagombaga kurinda : «  igice cyose cyo mu burengerazuba, uhereye ku murongo uva mu Ruhengeri mu majyaruguru, ukamanuka ugana i Kigali mu cyerekezo kiva mu majyepfo ugana mu burengerazuba, uwo murongo ukarangirira i Butare mu cyerekezo kiva mu majyepfo kigana mu burengerazuba. Icyo gice cyagombaga kubarirwamo Gisenyi, aho Guverinoma y’abicanyi yari yahungiye hakaba n’agace Habyarimana yavukagamo kimwe na benshi mu basirikare bakuru b’ingabo za Leta. Icyo gice, aho ingabo za Leta zari zarashyize ingabo nyinshi n’ibikoresho byinshi, ni cyo ingabo za Leta zari guheraho zirwana inkundura kugira ngo zisubirane ibice zari zaratakaje. »1

Ateruye ngo avuge Perezida Mitterrand ku mugaragaro, uwahoze ari Minisitiri w’Intebe Edouard Balladur yavuze ko habayeho igitekerezo cyo kohereza ingabo z’Abafaransa kurwanira i Kigali. Abazwa imbere y’aba depite bo mu Bufaransa, yavuze ko koko hari abayobozi bifuzaga kohereza ingabo z’Abafaransa kurwana, harimo n’i Kigali. Balladur yemeza ko kuri Perezida Mitterrand, «  batagombaga guhana Abahutu bakoraga Jenoside, mu gihe kuri jye aba batagombaga kohererezwa guhungira muri Zaire »

Minisitiri w’Intebe Balladur yanze gushyigikira iyoherezwa ry’ingabo zigiye kurwana nkuko Mitterrand yabishakaga, anatanga ingingo zigomba gukurikizwa kuri operasiyo Turquoise harimo uruhusa rw’Inama y’Umutekano ya ONU, no kumara mu Rwanda igihe gito hategerejwe ukuza kw’ingabo za MINUAR. Kubera uko kutumvikana hagati ya Balladur na Mitterrand, ingabo z’Abafaransa zagerageje kubahiriza ibyo byifuzo bitandukanye, icya Balladur cyari cyatanzwe ku mugaragaro, n’icya Mitterrand cyari cyihishe.

4.  Operasiyo Turquoise yari iya gisirikare kuva bigitangira

a.  Yakoresheje abasirikare benshi b’inzobere n’ibikoresho bihambaye

Iyo operasiyo yakoresheje abasirikare 3,060 bava mu mitwe y’inzobere mu ngabo                     z’Abafaransa. Harimo abasirikare b’imitwe inyuranye, RPIMa, GIGN, EPIGN, EMMIR, n’indi mitwe myinshi y’abasirikare b’inzobere.

Umunyamakuru w’ikinyamakuru Liberation cyo mu Bufaransa yabonye abasirikare n’ibikoresho bya operasiyo Turquoise abivuga muri aya magambo : 

«  ni ingabo z’inzobere zirwanira cyane cyane ku butaka, hakiyongeraho abarwanira mu kirere, mu mazi, ndetse n’abajandarume, batojwe kurusha abandi kandi bafite ibikoresho bigezweho, bafite imbunda za rutura, ibikoresho by’itumanaho bihambaye kandi bafite ubushobozi bwo gutata, gushaka amakuru k’uwo barwana. »

Abo basirikare b’Abafaransa bari bunganiwe n’abasirikare 508 bavuye mu bihugu bya Afurika : Sénégal, Guinée-Bissau, Tchad, Mauritanie, Egypte, Niger na Congo. Birumvikana ko izi ngabo zaziye kugira ngo bigaragare ko ari ingabo mpuzamahanga zari zigize operasiyo Turquoise.

Ibikoresho nabyo byari bihambaye. Cyane cyane ku birebana n’ingabo zirwanira mu kirere ; hari ikinyamakuru kizobereye mu bya gisirikare cyavuze ko operasiyo Turquoise yari ifite indege nyinshi zari Goma, Bukavu na Kisangani, harimo :

« C-130 Hercules esheshatu, C-160 Transall ikenda, Falcon-20 imwe, CASA-235 imwe,. Airbus imwe, Boeing -747 imwe, Antonov-124 Condor na Illyshin II-76 Candid cumi na zirindwi, i Kisangani hari indege za Jaguar enye (zavuye Bangui), Mirage-F1 CT enye (zavuye Colmar), Mirage F1- CR enye (zavuye Reims) na C-135F ebyiri».

Urebye amabwiriza yari yatanzwe, ubwoko bw’imbunda n’abasirikare bari baratoranyijwe kuyobora operasiyo Turquoise, byarabonekaga ko bari biteguye kurwana na FPR, ndetse n’Abatutsi muri rusange. Utitaye ku byavugwaga n’Abafaransa, byaragaragaye ko ingabo za operasiyo Turquoise, zari zaje kurwana n’Abatutsi muri Jenoside hagati.

b.  Operasiyo Turquoise yaje mu rwego rw’inkunga ya gisirikare Ubufaransa bwari bwarahaye na mbere Leta y’abicanyi kuva mu Ukwakira 1990

Abasirikare ba Turquoise bari no muri operasiyo Noroît. Mu gihe abantu batekerezaga ko Abafaransa bari baje guhagarika Jenoside, Ubufaransa bwohereje mu Rwanda abasirikare bari baratoje ingabo za Leta imyaka ine yose bakaba baranabateye inkunga mu mirwano. Ni abafatanyabikorwa b’abashyize mu bikorwa Jenoside, ingabo za Leta n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro kimwe n’abashyiraga mu bikorwa « auto-défense civile ».

Ariko iyo urebye ibyo abayobozi b’Abafaransa bagiye bavugira ku mugaragaro, ntawe wigeze muri bo avuga ko bari baje guhagarika Jenoside. Ahubwo bavuze ko baje « guhagarika ubwicanyi », «  guha umutekano abaturage bashoboraga gutsembwa » , « guha umutekano abaturage barokotse abashaka kubatsemba ». Mitterrand we yavugaga ko batari baje guhagarika Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi, ko ahubwo bari baje gutabara Abahutu ngo bari bugarijwe na FPR.

Umwanzuro

Operasiyo Turquoise yari igamije gushyiraho « Hutuland » no gufasha mu bya gisirikare ingabo za Leta na Guverinoma y’abicanyi.

Urebye uko Ubufaransa bwagiye butanga inkunga ku Rwanda, inyandiko z’abanyamakuru n’abanditsi benshi kuri icyo kibazo, ndetse na za raporo z’akanama k’abadepite b’Abafaransa kasuzumye imyifatire y’Ubufaransa mu Rwanda, biragaragara ko operasiyo Turquoise yaje mu rwego rwo gukomeza guha inkunga ya gisirikare Ubufaransa bwari bwarahaye na mbere Leta y’abicanyi n’ingabo zayo.

Edouard Balladur, mw’ibaruwa ye yandikiye François Mitterrand tariki ya 21 Kamena 1994, yaramuburiye amubwira ko hari ingingo zigomba gukurikizwa muri operasiyo Turquoise; « tugomba guha igihe gito ibikorwa by’ubutabazi ntidutinde mu gishobora kuzafatwa nkaho ari igikorwa cy’ubukoloni mu gihugu cy’u Rwanda ».

Nkuko byagaragaye mu nyandiko zasohotse nyuma, Ubufaransa bwohereje ingabo zabwo gushyigikira abicanyi mu gihe zohererezwaga mu Rwanda tariki ya 23 Kamena 1994. 


Dr BIZIMANA Jean Damascène

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa

Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG)




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